Self Regulation

Self Regulation

Is an integrated learning process, consisting of the development of a set of constructive behaviours that affect one’s learning. These processes are planned and adapted to support the pursuit of personal goals in changing learning environments.
Three cyclical phases seem to emerge in the acquisition of self-regulation skills.




Phase 1. Forethought/preaction—This phase precedes the actual performance; sets the stage for action; maps out the tasks to minimise the unknown; and helps to develop a positive mindset. Realistic expectations can make the task more appealing. Goals must be set as specific outcomes, arranged in order from short-term to long-term. We have to ask students to consider the following:

  • When will they start?
  • Where will they do the work?
  • How will they get started?
  • What conditions will help or hinder their learning activities are a part of this phase?

Phase 2. Performance control—This phase involves processes during learning and the active attempt to utilise specific strategies to help a student become more successful.
We have to ask students to consider the following:

  • Are students accomplishing what they hoped to do?
  • Are they being distracted?
  • Is this taking more time than they thought?
  • Under what conditions do they accomplish the most?

Self-Regulation— Phases of Self-Regulation

  • What questions can they ask themselves while they are working?
  • How can they encourage themselves to keep working (including self- talk—come on, get your work done so you can watch that television show or read your magazine!)

Phase 3. Self-reflection—This phase involves reflection after the performance, a self-evaluation of outcomes compared to
goals. We have to ask students to consider the

  • Did they accomplish what they planned to do?
  • Were they distracted and how did they get back to work?
  • Did they plan enough time or did they need more time than they thought?
  • Under what conditions did they accomplish the most work.

The development of good self-regulation usually involves the following:
a.  Self-observation—systematically monitoring own performance; keeping records is a big part of this!!
b.  Self-judgement—systematically comparing performance with a standard or goal (e.g., re-examining answers; checking procedures; rating answers in relation to answer sheet, another person’s)
c.  Self-reaction—engage in personal processes (i.e., goal-setting; metacognitive planning; behavioural outcomes); self-administering praise or criticism; rehearsing, memorising; proximal goal-setting; structuring environment (e.g. Self-Regulation— Phases of Self-Regulation change the academic task’s difficulty; change the academic setting, the immediate physical environment; create a study area); asking for help.
Common Self-Regulation Strategies
The individual set of self-regulation strategies that are usually used by successful students fall into three categories: personal, behavioural, and environmental.
A.  Personal. These strategies usually involve how a student organises and interprets information and can include:
1.  Organising and transforming information

  • outlining
  • summarising
  • rearrangement of materials
  • highlighting
  • flashcards/ index cards
  • draw pictures, diagrams, charts
  • webs/mapping

    2.  Goal setting and planning/standard setting

  • sequencing, timing, completing
  • time management and pacing

    3.  Keeping records and monitoring

  • note-taking
  • lists of errors made
  • record of marks
  • portfolio, keeping all drafts of assignments

    4.  Rehearsing and memorising (written or verbal; overt or covert)

  • mnemonic devices
  • teaching someone else the material
  • making sample questions
  • using mental imagery
  • using repetition

B.  Behavioural: These strategies involve actions that the student takes. Self-Regulation—Common Self-Regulation Strategies
1.  Self-evaluating (checking quality or progress)

  • task analysis (What does the teacher want me to do? What do I want out of it?)
  • self-instructions; enactive feedback
  • attentiveness

    2.  Self-consequating 

  • treats to motivate; self-reinforcement
  • arrangement or imagination of punishments; delay of gratification

C.  Environmental: These strategies involve seeking assistance and structuring of the physical study environment.
1.  Seeking information (library, Internet)

  • library resources
  • Internet resources
  • reviewing cards
  • rereading records, tests, textbooks

    2.  Environmental structuring

  • selecting or arranging the physical setting
  • isolating/ eliminating or minimising distractions
  • break up study periods and spread them over time

    3.  Seeking social assistance

  • from peers
  • from teachers or other adults
  • emulate exemplary models