Is an integrated learning process, consisting of the development of a set of constructive behaviours that affect one’s learning. These processes are planned and adapted to support the pursuit of personal goals in changing learning environments.
Three cyclical phases seem to emerge in the acquisition of self-regulation skills.
Phase 1. Forethought/preaction—This phase precedes the actual performance; sets the stage for action; maps out the tasks to minimise the unknown; and helps to develop a positive mindset. Realistic expectations can make the task more appealing. Goals must be set as specific outcomes, arranged in order from short-term to long-term. We have to ask students to consider the following:
Phase 2. Performance control—This phase involves processes during learning and the active attempt to utilise specific strategies to help a student become more successful.
We have to ask students to consider the following:
Self-Regulation— Phases of Self-Regulation
Phase 3. Self-reflection—This phase involves reflection after the performance, a self-evaluation of outcomes compared to
goals. We have to ask students to consider the
The development of good self-regulation usually involves the following:
a. Self-observation—systematically monitoring own performance; keeping records is a big part of this!!
b. Self-judgement—systematically comparing performance with a standard or goal (e.g., re-examining answers; checking procedures; rating answers in relation to answer sheet, another person’s)
c. Self-reaction—engage in personal processes (i.e., goal-setting; metacognitive planning; behavioural outcomes); self-administering praise or criticism; rehearsing, memorising; proximal goal-setting; structuring environment (e.g. Self-Regulation— Phases of Self-Regulation change the academic task’s difficulty; change the academic setting, the immediate physical environment; create a study area); asking for help.
Common Self-Regulation Strategies
The individual set of self-regulation strategies that are usually used by successful students fall into three categories: personal, behavioural, and environmental.
A. Personal. These strategies usually involve how a student organises and interprets information and can include:
1. Organising and transforming information
2. Goal setting and planning/standard setting
3. Keeping records and monitoring
4. Rehearsing and memorising (written or verbal; overt or covert)
B. Behavioural: These strategies involve actions that the student takes. Self-Regulation—Common Self-Regulation Strategies
1. Self-evaluating (checking quality or progress)
C. Environmental: These strategies involve seeking assistance and structuring of the physical study environment.
1. Seeking information (library, Internet)
2. Environmental structuring
3. Seeking social assistance